Nonetheless, the history of the Irish in Chile has of course influenced relations between the two countries. He was killed in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1814 by Luis Carrera himself in a shotgun duel (for which the Lautaro Lodge later exacted revenge by having all three of the Carrera brothers executed). Chile also received its share of Irish Engineers. Irish Connections: Few young men were as ambitious as O’Higgins, field marshal in the colonial Spanish army and viceroy of Lima Sat, Mar 18, 2017, 05:00 Eoin Butler This put him at odds with the Carrera brothers, who were bitter political rivals of O’Higgins and had already crossed swords with the Lodge. Bernardo’s popularity soared, along with his cri de guerre: ‘To die with honour or to live with glory’. Bernardo O’Higgins, supreme director of Chile, commemorated throughout Chile. A year earlier, O’Connor had been the best man at O’Higgins’ wedding. Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme was a Chilean independence leader who freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. He was designated Captain of the Frontier Dragoon Regiment in 1795, and Inspector of Troops in Chiloé, Valdivia and Osorno and the forts of Alcudia and María Luisa from 1796-1797. René O'Ryan, ex-marine from Punta Arenas, Magallanes Region, better known for his participation as an instructor on “Pelotón”, a reality TV show. They were not so fortunate in their next battle at Cancha Rayada, however, but overall victory was finally consolidated at the Battle of Maipú. But in the service of Carrera and the patriotic cause, Bernardo O’Higgins was one of the few officers who battled shoulder to shoulder with his men. He was known locally as “Canisbro”, as are his descendants today. Bernardo O’Higgins was the son of Irish-Spanish nobleman Ambrosio O’Higgins, who was Viceroy of Peru (which at the time, included Chile). In addition to the above, there were also Irishmen originally based in Argentina who joined the Liberation “Army of the Andes” and fought the Royalists under San Martín at the battle of Maipú. They were victorious at the Battle of Chacabuco. In Chile, he was named Lieutenant Colonel, later Colonel and in 1800 was called to Lima as advisor to Viceroy O'Higgins. He personally sent for the following: John McKenna (known locally as “Juan Mackenna”)arrived in Chile in 1796 after being referred to Ambrose O’Higgins with letters of recommendation following training and serving with the Irish Brigade in Spain. He was 45, temporarily blind, financially broken and romantically hurt. In 1823, he was deposed in a coup led by his former closest ally and comrade at the Battle of Rancagua, Ramón Freire. But Martínez was an old man, and when the Spanish viceroy in Lima invaded Chile, Bernardo began to achieve fame. Bernardo’s mother was the daughter of a prominent local, and it was with her family that he was raised. He arrived in Chile and later sent for his brothers, Andrew and John. Furthermore, Chilean records from 1820-850 registered seven marriages between Irishmen and criolla women in the south of the country. At the time of the first waves of Irish immigration to South America, Ireland was under British occupation, and Irish immigration to Chile in larger numbers generally began with the remnants of “The Wild Geese”. He was the son of Ambrosio O'Higgins who came from a poor labouring family in Summerhill in County Meath. He was a Chilean independence leader who freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. There is also a monument to him in Dublin, Ireland. Well: Bernardo O’Higgins Riquelme (1778–1842) was a Chilean independence leader who freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. O'Higgins (Irish: Ó hUiginn) is an Irish noble family.Its Ballynary line is descended from Shean Duff O'Higgins (fl. These included Dr John Oughan who tended to San Martín’s forces in northern Argentina and Chile, and John Thomond O’Brien. He who is brave, follow me!”. Sadly, Frank died of tuberculosis in Peru, where had gone in search of a cure, less than a year after Anita’s birth. He was then recalled to Spain but later returned to Chile in 1764 and was designated military governor of Valdivia and later Director of Fortifications. Although originally on the payroll of the Spanish Crown, by this time McKenna had already had contact in Europe and South America with, and joined, the “Lautaro Lodge”(a shadowy and mysterious Masonic secret society formed in Europe dedicated to the overthrow of Spanish rule in Latin He passed away in 1801. He sided with Bolívar in his claim that Chiloe Island, in southern Chile, was part of Peru; and later, in the 1830s, he opposed Chile’s war against the Peru–Bolivia confederacy. Merrion Square has a wealth of statues and sculptures and one of those is a sculpture dedicated to Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme who was a landowner of Spanish and Irish ancestry. (The Times Concise Atlas of World History [1982]), Bust of Bernardo O’Higgins in Dublin’s Merrion Square. But Ambrose forced the boy back to Spain, where he briefly lived in absolute poverty. Copyright © 2020 History Publications Ltd, Unit 9, 78 Furze Road, Sandyford, Dublin 18, Ireland | Tel. He also sought to improve communication with other Spanish colonies, and put an end to the encomienda system which obliged Indians to pay tributes to and work the land for the Spanish. Chile’s redheaded revolutionary has finally been returned to the people whom he struggled so fiercely to free. The Irish in Chile: Bernardo O'Higgins created the South American country I have been visiting Chile since 1991 and had learned quite a bit about Bernardo O’Higgins, who had a … +353-1-293 3568, That field of glory. He was a leader in the Chilean war of independence and is considered the “Founding Father of Chile”. In 1826, he wrote a damning report on the state of medicine in Chile, criticising the country’s poor sanitary levels, poor medical training and disregard for medical science. S. Collier, Ideas and politics of Chilean independence, 1808–1833 (New York, 1967). His great-great grandson was Carlos Ibáñez, who served two terms as president of Chile. He had also offended the Catholic Church and these actions lost him the support of Chile’s businessmen. William married and distinguished himself in the medical field. When Ambrose died, however, most of the inheritance went to his son, who now found himself a rich man with a huge estate in the south of Chile. Despite his achievements in Chile, his definitive contribution to Chilean history was actually in fathering a son out of wedlock who at the time he did not acknowledge, yet would later go on to become the hero of Chilean independence, “Supreme Director of Chile”, “Founding Father of the Nation” When Bernardo was born in 1778, Ambrose was the Spanish governor of Chile. 1600 C.E. Other reports suggest that like his brother, he may have fallen ill with TB and travelled to Peru for treatment. people both in Ireland and around the world. Tomás O’Shee also travelled to serve in the Irish regiment in Spain where he rose to the rank of Captain. On hearing of the upcoming invasion, he prepared his militia for battle and defeated the Spanish Royalist forces at Linares, resulting in his promotion to Colonel. He was a leader in the Chilean war of independence and is considered the “Founding Father of Chile”. He was a wealthy landowner of Spanish and Irish ancestry. O’Brien was from Baltinglass, County Wicklow but he left for Argentina in 1812. Irish-Chileans have also featured prominently in politics, arts, entertainment & literature, and of course, the military. L. Valencia Avaria, O’Higgins, el buen genio de América (Santiago de Chile, 1980). This had been arranged by the high-ranking Irish military officer Count Alexander “Alejandro” O’Reilly, an uncle of his who served in the Spanish Army and himself went on to become the "father of the Puerto Rican militia" and Governor of the then Spanish Louisiana. Mackenna, who had been a close friend to his father, was now a confidant of Bernardo O’Higgins, and is accepted to have been the real military genius behind Bernardo O’Higgins campaign successes during the War of Independence. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Patricio Lynch, distinguished Admiral of the Chilean Navy during the Pacific War and relative of the  famous Argentine revolutionary Ernesto “Che” John Clark was an Engineer whose Chilean descendents, also Engineers and named John and Matthew Clark, later helped build the trans-Andean railway. It was there that he first became attracted to independence movements in Latin America, and joined the Masonic Lautaro Lodge. L. Valencia Avaria, O’Higgins, el buen genio de América (Santiago de Chile, 1980). As the only legitimate and acknowledged heir to his uncle, he inherited large country estates in Cauquenes, Puchucay and on Quiriquina Island. He also (unsuccessfully) solicited Bolívar’s assistance for a return to Chile. At one point, Luis Carrera was seen returning to the city with his troops, but suddenly retreated at the last moment. He was killed in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1814 by Luis Carrera himself in a shotgun duel (for which the Lautaro Lodge later exacted revenge by having all three of the Carrera brothers executed). These were Mark Lozet, a stonemason living in Santiago, William Luns a shoemaker in Talca, Charles “O’Hega” a carpenter and navigator in Talcahuano, James Hogan a soldier in the Valdivia Infantry Battalion and Peter Smith, and a shoemaker in Valdivia. His administration was successful, much to the envy of Chile’s Captain-general Gabriel de Avilés, who was dubious about the importation of Irish workers to the region. Merrion Square has a wealth of statues and sculptures and one of those is a sculpture dedicated to Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme who was a landowner of Spanish and Irish ancestry. In 1817, O’Higgins and San Martín returned to Chile in a renewed effort to drive the Spanish out. His son Miguel is the current Irish Honorary Consul. Bernardo O'Higgins, 1778-1842, was born in Chile of Chilean and Irish descent. Bernardo O’Higgins (1778–1842) So great was the cultural influence of the Irish in Chile that a man of Irish decent became the leader of the Chilean independence movement . He was a wealthy landowner of Spanish and Irish ancestry. Bernardo O’Higgins was the locally-born illegitimate son of Ambrosio O’Higgins and Isabel Riquelme, a criolla from a prominent family of Basque origin in Chillán. They had two daughters, one who died in childhood, and a second called Anita, who was born in Santiago in 1905. . He fled to Spain and married a woman related by marriage to the future governor of Chile. He also founded the School of Medicine in 1833, and was a member of the Public Welfare Central Committee. He was later elected to the local council. America) through its members Jose de San Martin, the future liberator of Argentina whom he met in France, Bernardo O’Higgins, the Chilean-born son of Ambrosio O’Higgins and future Liberator of Chile with whom he had also formed a close friendship, and Francisco de Miranda, the Lodge’s founder. In 1790, at his request, and on the recommendation of the Irish Viceroy of Peru, Ambrosio O’Higgins(see below) he was given the post of Governor of Coquimbo and La Serena, where he then resided. He was a Commanding Officer who had trained in England and distinguished himself on the battlefield in Spain and France  during the Napoleonic wars, where he reached the rank of Lieutenant Colonel by his mid-twenties and was decorated with the with the Flor de Lis  and the Carlos III Cross. The first two Irishmen to reach Chile arrived with Magallanes in 1520 as part of the expedition that first set eyes on the strait that is called after him today. Bernardo O'Higgins (August 20, 1778–October 24, 1842) was a Chilean landowner, general, president, and one of the leaders of its struggle for independence. Following Chile’s 1810 declaration of Independence, he joined the Patriot Army and was tasked by the first Chilean government with preparing the country’s defences and the Chilean army’s equipment. They were a thorn in the side of the Lautaro Lodge for their purely Chilean goals of liberation as opposed to the Lodge’s more Pan-American focus, and allegedly, San Martin saw José Miguel was a potential rival. He started out as a travelling merchant throughout the colonies before proposing a trans-Andean communication route linking Mendoza, Argentina with Chile. O’Higgins managed to escape with a few of his men and fled to Santiago. appointment and sent Mackenna into exile. Indeed, the first Irishman to settle, marry and have a family in Chile, a Captain John Evans, was known locally as “Juan Ibáñez”. Exiled in Mendoza, Political developments in nineteenth-century Latin America. August 20: TODAY in Irish History: 1778: Birth of Bernardo O’Higgins, Chilean independence leader and founding father of Chile in Chillán about 250 miles south of the country’s capital, Santiago. He also created and trained the Chilean Army’s Corps of Military Engineers. Carrera claimed that an attack would have been easily driven off, as Luís Carrera’s men had been mostly unskilled and poorly armed militia. As governor, his policy was to integrate the Indians as opposed to subjugating them as the Spanish had been trying to do. Unfortunately, the project failed due to a lack of effort on the part of the Chileans and a devastating fondness for drinking on the part of the Irish, and Osorno remained in poor economic health until it was eventually regenerated by the later arrival  of a wave of German immigrants. Merrion Square has a wealth of statues and sculptures and one of those is a sculpture dedicated to Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme who was a landowner of Spanish and Irish ancestry. For his courage, the junta in Santiago passed the military command to O’Higgins from Carrera, who had fled the battlefield and was subsequently captured by Spanish forces. On hearing his foreign accent and for his cheek, Picó ordered O' Carrol's immediate execution by firing squad. There the young man met Venezuelan Francisco Miranda, an early promoter of a free Hispanic America who was trying unsuccessfully to gain the support of the British government for his cause. Bernardo O’Higgins was a Chilean nationalist of Irish descent. S. Collier, Ideas and politics of Chilean independence, 1808–1833 (New York, 1967). Historically, the Irish in Chile have played a highly influential role in the country’s development and came second only to the Basques in the  military effort during the war of independence. Background He was then given leave to visit Ireland, but died in Lisbon whilst on his way back to Chile. Once O’Higgins put an end to José Miguel Carrera’s brief dictatorship and re-established his power base, he appointed Mackenna as Major-Chief-of-State and sent him south to fight the General Antonio Pareja and his pro-Spanish Royalist army. Mackenna was a staunch ally of Bernardo O’Higgins, as he had been to his father before him and was also a fellow member of the Lautaro Lodge. A short time later, Carrera escaped, and on return to Santiago, overthrew the junta in another coup out of opposition to O’Higgins’ However, due to the litany of internal coups and purges within the fledgling government, he would spend the next few years alternating between prestigious military positions and pariah status as a political prisoner or exile according to who had temporarily gained the upper hand at the time. All of these men had arrived in Chile on Spanish or English frigates. now-independent Peruvian govern-ment had given him properties as a thank-you gesture for his efforts in building the navy. add their voice to the historical record. Ana Clara was a descendant of Guillaume Pinochet, a French merchant who arrived in Chile around 1700, who was also the ancestor of President Augusto Pinochet, making Ana a distant relative. Merrion Square has a wealth of statues and sculptures and one of those is a sculpture dedicated to Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme who was a landowner of Spanish and Irish ancestry. In the end he became as Peruvian as he had been Chilean. O’Higgins was renowned for his bravery on the battlefield and during the Battle of El Roble, he took command after Jose Miguel Carrera retreated, and despite being injured, endeavoured to pursue the fleeing royalists, giving one of his most famed battle cries: “Lads! It is thought that Frank’s brother Tom may have died in the 1906 earthquake which struck Valparaiso and killed 3,000. O’Higgins spent the remaining twenty years of his life in Peru. Following the battle of Chacabuco he rose to rank of captain and was appointed aide-de-camp to San Martín. The rebels were greatly outnumbered and routed, and José Miguel Carrera refused to send desperately needed reinforcements during the battle and left them to their fate. He died from heart disease in 1842. A. Sepulveda, Bernardo, una biografía de Bernardo O’Higgins (Santiago de Chile, 2007). Alfredo Sepulveda lectures in journalism at Alberto Hurtado University in Santiago, Chile. Following the campaign he settled permanently in Chile. Soon Bernardo replaced Carrera as the chief of the Patriot Army, even though he was reluctant to do so. In his time, he fostered the establishment of hospitals, cemeteries, orphanages and other institutions for the poor. His personal assistant was Ambrose O’Higgins, then a young engineer-draftsman, later governor of Chile, viceroy of Peru, and father of Bernardo O’Higgins. He also made respected and valued treaties with rebellious Indian tribes to the south. He later went into exile to Peru where he remained for the rest of his life. Following his capture, he insulted the Spaniard by calling him "an impoverished peasant". Ireland did, however, accept a limited number of Chilean refugees in 1974. And who was he? O’Higgins, who was not part of Santiago’s agrarian élite and was looked down on as a foreigner, became a member of Congress, but he was not a main player. An earthquake and financial hardships in the country further complicated his government and a new constitution introduced in 1822 proved unpopular. He later had an Oberon class submarine in the Chilean naval fleet called after him. Do so fulfilling the dream which later enticed many Irish to south America via Spain in.! 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